This page is for those seeking to develop on LND or enhance their conceptual understanding of the Lightning Network and associated technologies. It is not comprehensive, but a careful study of the materials below should be sufficient for anyone’s needs.

If something important is missing, or you feel that additional resources or links would be helpful, please email Max Fang or message him on the Lightning Community Slack.

Lightning: Beginner

Lightning: Intermediate

  • Lightning Network Tech Talk at Coinbase January 2016
    • Spoken in-depth mechanics of bidirectional payment channels and multi-hop payments
  • Lightning Network: Rusty Russell’s Technical Explainer Series
    • In-depth explanation of Lightning, oriented towards developers.
    • Part I: Revocable Transactions
    • Part II: Hashed Timelock Contracts (HTLCs)
    • Part III: Channeling Contracts
    • Part IV: Summary
  • Lightning Network Paper published January 2016
    • The protocol has changed since this original paper, but covers the mid-level mechanics of the Lightning Network with an emphasis on the smart contracts that make it trustless
    • Combines the HTLC and channel update concepts together
    • Explains how the Lightning Network is represented in Bitcoin transaction based contracts, and how the Lightning Network works with the UTXO model.
  • Lightning Network Community Blog, managed by Lightning Labs.
    • Stay up to date with the latest about LND and the Lightning Network!

Lightning: Advanced

  • Read the code on Github: lnd

  • Basis Of Lightning Technology (BOLTs)
    • Full technical specification of the Lightning Network. BOLTs are the common standard enabling distinct, interoperable Lightning implementations.
    • BOLT #0: Introduction and Index
    • BOLT #1: Base Protocol
    • BOLT #2: Peer Protocol for Channel Management
    • BOLT #3: Bitcoin Transaction and Script Formats
    • BOLT #4: Onion Routing Protocol
    • BOLT #5: Recommendations for On-chain Transaction Handling
    • BOLT #6: Interim Node and Channel Discovery
    • BOLT #7: P2P Node and Channel Discovery
    • BOLT #8: Encrypted and Authenticated Transport
    • BOLT #9: Assigned Feature Flags
    • BOLT #11: Invoice Protocol for Lightning Payments
  • Lightning Network Deep Dive talk at SF Bitcoin Devs August 2016
    • Commitment scheme: Compact revocation derivation and storage
    • Revocation scheme: Pre-image derived revocation keys (homomorphic derivation)
    • Lightning Commitment Protocol: the fast link-layer protocol between two Lightning nodes
    • LND architecture
  • Lightning Network as a Directed Graph: Single-Funded Channel Network Topology talk at SF Bitcoin Devs April 2016
    • Covers single funded channels and channel exhaustion
    • Covers how to construct sub-satoshi micropayments: “Pre-Image Length Probabilistic Payments”
  • Onion Routing in Lightning - Laolu Osuntokun at Scaling Bitcoin Milan 2016 (starts at 2:47)
  • Outsourced Channel Monitoring - Tadge Dryja at Scaling Bitcoin Milan 2016 (starts at 48:12)
    • Outsourced channel monitoring: delegating the task of channel monitoring to a semi-trusted peer
    • Video, slides, transcript

LND Developer Tools

LND Community