This page is for those seeking to develop on LND or enhance their conceptual understanding of the Lightning Network and associated technologies. It is not comprehensive, but a careful study of the materials below should be sufficient for anyone’s needs.
If something important is missing, or you feel that additional resources or links would be helpful, please email Max Fang or message him on the Lightning Community Slack.
- What is the Lightning Network and how can it help Bitcoin scale?
article by Elizabeth Stark
- Accessible article explanation of the Lightning Network by Elizabeth Stark, the CEO of Lightning Labs.
- The Blockchain and Us: Interview with Elizabeth Stark
- Quick 7 minute primer on the Lightning Network and its implications.
- Joseph Poon discusses Lightning
at Construct 2017
(ctrl+f for “Lightning”)
- In-depth spoken explanation of the Lightning Network for the general audience. Note that this video requires providing CoinDesk an email address.
- “Understanding the Lightning Network”: Aaron van Wirdum’s General Explainer Series
- #bitcoin-lightning - Things to Know: Rusty Russell addresses FAQs about Lightning, including its requirements, limitations, segwit, and expected network dynamics.
- Lightning Network Tech
Talk at Coinbase January
- Spoken in-depth mechanics of bidirectional payment channels and multi-hop payments
- Lightning Networks: Rusty Russell’s Technical Explainer Series
- Lightning Network Paper
published February 2015, last updated January 2016
- The protocol has changed since this original paper, but covers the mid-level mechanics of the Lightning Network with an emphasis on the smart contracts that make it trustless
- Combines the HTLC and channel update concepts together
- Explains how the Lightning Network is represented in Bitcoin transaction based contracts, and how the Lightning Network works with the UTXO model.
- Lightning Network Community Blog, managed by
- Stay up to date with the latest about LND and the Lightning Network!
Read the code on Github:
- Basis Of Lightning
- Full technical specification of the Lightning Network. BOLTs are the common standard enabling distinct, interoperable Lightning implementations.
- BOLT #0: Introduction and Index
- BOLT #1: Base Protocol
- BOLT #2: Peer Protocol for Channel Management
- BOLT #3: Bitcoin Transaction and Script Formats
- BOLT #4: Onion Routing Protocol
- BOLT #5: Recommendations for On-chain Transaction Handling
- BOLT #6: Interim Node and Channel Discovery
- BOLT #7: P2P Node and Channel Discovery
- BOLT #8: Encrypted and Authenticated Transport
- BOLT #9: Assigned Feature Flags
- BOLT #11: Invoice Protocol for Lightning Payments
- Lightning Network Deep
Dive talk at SF Bitcoin Devs
- Commitment scheme: Compact revocation derivation and storage
- Revocation scheme: Pre-image derived revocation keys (homomorphic derivation)
- Lightning Commitment Protocol: the fast link-layer protocol between two Lightning nodes
- LND architecture
- Lightning Network as a Directed Graph: Single-Funded Channel Network
Topology talk at SF Bitcoin Devs
- Covers single funded channels and channel exhaustion
- Covers how to construct sub-satoshi micropayments: “Pre-Image Length Probabilistic Payments”
- Onion Routing in Lightning - Laolu Osuntokun at Scaling Bitcoin Milan 2016 (starts at 2:47)
- Outsourced Channel Monitoring - Tadge Dryja at Scaling Bitcoin Milan 2016 (starts at 48:12)
LND Developer Tools
- Developer Guides
- API documentation
- API Reference documentation for the Lightning Network Daemon
- Lightning Faucet for Bitcoin testnet or
- To read more, build from source, or deploy your own faucet see the Github repository
- LND Web Dashboard
- A web client and dashboard made by Francis Mably. Useful as a more customizable client or as a starting point for a Lightning project
- Lightning Apps and the Emerging Developer Ecosystem on LND
- A survey of existing apps built on Lightning, as of July 2017. Potentially useful as inspiration or code examples
- Neutrino: A Bitcoin Light Client used in LND