This page is for those seeking to develop on LND or enhance their conceptual understanding of the Lightning Network and associated technologies. It is not comprehensive, but a careful study of the materials below should be sufficient for anyone’s needs.

Lightning: Beginner

Lightning: Intermediate

  • Lightning Network Tech Talk at Coinbase January 2016
    • Spoken in-depth mechanics of bidirectional payment channels and multi-hop payments
  • Lightning Networks: Rusty Russell’s Technical Explainer Series
    • In-depth explanation of Lightning, oriented towards developers.
    • Part I: Revocable Transactions
    • Part II: Hashed Timelock Contracts (HTLCs)
    • Part III: Channeling Contracts
    • Part IV: Summary
  • Lightning Network Paper published February 2015, last updated January 2016
    • The protocol has changed since this original paper, but covers the mid-level mechanics of the Lightning Network with an emphasis on the smart contracts that make it trustless
    • Combines the HTLC and channel update concepts together
    • Explains how the Lightning Network is represented in Bitcoin transaction based contracts, and how the Lightning Network works with the UTXO model.
  • Lightning Network Community Blog, managed by Lightning Labs.
    • Stay up to date with the latest about LND and the Lightning Network!

Lightning: Advanced

  • Read the code on Github: lnd

  • Basis Of Lightning Technology (BOLTs)
    • Full technical specification of the Lightning Network. BOLTs are the common standard enabling distinct, interoperable Lightning implementations.
    • BOLT #0: Introduction and Index
    • BOLT #1: Base Protocol
    • BOLT #2: Peer Protocol for Channel Management
    • BOLT #3: Bitcoin Transaction and Script Formats
    • BOLT #4: Onion Routing Protocol
    • BOLT #5: Recommendations for On-chain Transaction Handling
    • BOLT #6: Interim Node and Channel Discovery
    • BOLT #7: P2P Node and Channel Discovery
    • BOLT #8: Encrypted and Authenticated Transport
    • BOLT #9: Assigned Feature Flags
    • BOLT #11: Invoice Protocol for Lightning Payments
  • Lightning Network Deep Dive talk at SF Bitcoin Devs August 2016
    • Commitment scheme: Compact revocation derivation and storage
    • Revocation scheme: Pre-image derived revocation keys (homomorphic derivation)
    • Lightning Commitment Protocol: the fast link-layer protocol between two Lightning nodes
    • LND architecture
  • Lightning Network as a Directed Graph: Single-Funded Channel Network Topology talk at SF Bitcoin Devs April 2016
    • Covers single funded channels and channel exhaustion
    • Covers how to construct sub-satoshi micropayments: “Pre-Image Length Probabilistic Payments”
  • Onion Routing in Lightning - Laolu Osuntokun at Scaling Bitcoin Milan 2016 (starts at 2:47)
  • Outsourced Channel Monitoring - Tadge Dryja at Scaling Bitcoin Milan 2016 (starts at 48:12)
    • Outsourced channel monitoring: delegating the task of channel monitoring to a semi-trusted peer
    • Video, slides, transcript

LND Developer Tools

LND Community

If something important is missing, or you feel that additional resources or links would be helpful, please send a message in the LND Developer Slack